Cities Tackle Sewer Overflows to Reduce Phosphorus

Wastewater treatment upgrades and legislation banning phosphates in consumer detergents have helped cities greatly reduce the amount of phosphorus they discharge into the Great Lakes. Still, billions of gallons of wastewater are released into the lakes each year through outdated sewage systems that use combined sewers. These sewers transport raw sewage and stormwater in a single pipe, and when heavy rains occur they can overflow directly into rivers and lakes without passing through a treatment plant.
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Program Progress

100% Complete
Started in 2002
Completed in 2020

The Toledo Waterways Initiative (TWI) program encompasses more than 45 separate projects over the course of 18 years, at a total cost of $529.65 million. This bar shows the construction phase of the program is completed.